Watermelon is a summer vegetable known as appetizing and refreshing. in watermelon fruit
It has a very high sugar content.
Watermelon is a hot and temperate climate vegetable. Therefore, watermelon cultivation can be done in the spring after the danger of frost has disappeared. Watermelon needs a long and warm growing cycle. During maturity, it requires high temperature and low humidity. Watermelon plant develops ideally at 20-25 oC. Watermelon seedlings should be planted when the soil temperature is 15 oC. The best time for planting watermelon seedlings in our city is the first half of May (6-12 May). It does not like dry weather and heat, and it does not like excessive air humidity. In very humid weather conditions, watermelon fungus diseases are caught very quickly.
The most suitable soils for watermelon cultivation are the national soils near the streams and the sandy-loamy or loamy-sandy, clay-loam alluvial soils rich in organic matter, with high water-holding ability. Heavy soils are not preferred because their roots are delicate. Ground water does not like very high lands. Having the ground water around one meter is ideal for watermelon.
SOIL PREPARATION and PLANTING
The soil is deeply worked several times. If cultivation will be done on light textured sandy soils; It should be done after the soil structure is improved with burnt farm manure and other nutrients. Grafted watermelon seedlings should be taken from greenhouses that produce controlled seedlings. Grafted watermelon seedlings should be planted on the back of the previously made furrows, so that the graft point does not come into contact with the soil. Grafted watermelon seedlings should be planted at wider intervals than other non-grafted watermelon seedlings, as they grow rapidly and spread over a wide area. Grafted seedlings 1 m between rows, 4 m above the row. will be erected. Accordingly, 250 plants are planted per 1 decare. The soil should be ventilated by hoeing 2-3 times until the flowering period. Thus, the water holding capacity of the soil is increased and the fight against weeds is made.
INSTALLED WATERMEON GROWING
What is the purpose of using grafted seedlings in cultivation?
It is to be able to cultivate by grafting varieties that are sensitive to soil and root diseases but with good market value on rootstocks that are resistant to soil and root diseases. In particular, fungal diseases can remain in the soil for a long time. Since the variety we want to grow in soils carrying this disease is sensitive, it will get sick and harm our producers and will not be able to be grown. Cultivation with grafted seedlings in fields with fungal disease, namely fusarium problem, will protect the plant from soil-borne diseases. Thus, cultivation will be carried out on lands where soil spraying is not done and where watermelons cannot be grown for years.
What rules should we follow when planting seedlings and after planting?
-Before planting, we should make sure that the soil is tempered.
-We should do the planting in cool hours.
-When removing the seedling from the viol, we must hold the leafy part. If we hold it by the trunk, we may damage the trunk.
-We should be careful not to plant the seedling deep and not to get soil on the root collar.
-During planting, the rootstock body must remain on the soil. The grafting point or the body of the pen must not come into contact with the ground.
– Throat filling should never be done.
-The grafting point should not be covered with soil even during hoeing.
-Plenty of life water should be given immediately after planting.
After the grafted watermelon seedlings are planted, life water should be given. After the seedlings take root and start to sprout, irrigation should be done every 10-15 days. If a regular irrigation is not done, the development of plants will be adversely affected. Irregular watering will cause cracking in the fruit if it is during the ripening period. Pond should not be done in irrigation. Excess water reduces the post-harvest durability and fruit flavor. Otherwise, if it comes into contact with water, rooting will occur at the graft site and diseases to be transmitted from the soil will be carried to other parts of the plant by these roots. Thus, disease will occur in the root zone of the plant and will cause the plant to die.
15-20 days after planting, preventive spraying should be done 4-5 times in every 15-20 days against fungal diseases and pests, and pesticides should be applied with fungicides and insecticides according to the disease and pest (especially against aphids, red spider pests and powdery mildew disease). Insecticides that are effective on bees should be avoided during the flowering and fruit setting period of watermelon plants. After the fruits reach a certain size, agricultural spraying is reduced. Towards the end of the harvest, the agricultural struggle is completely abandoned.
Watermelon has a high need for commercial fertilizers as well as farm manure. planting seedlings
3-4 tons of burnt farm manure should be given to the soil before it is done. watermelon plant
Pigeon also likes sheep and goat manure.
In addition to farm manure, pure per decare;
15-20 kg of nitrogen,
10-12 kg of phosphorus and
20-25 kg of potassium
should be given. Some of the fertilizer to be given before planting seedlings; the rest is june
It should be given 4-5 times together with irrigation from the beginning of the month.
Since fruit binding in watermelon is in different periods, watermelon fruits are also different.
they mature over time. Ripe fruits are harvested gradually. Gradual harvesting is completed in 3-5 times.
The maturity of watermelons is easily recognized by some symptoms on the fruits and fruit stalks.
-Fruit peel is easily peeled off with nails.
– The flaps on the watermelon stems dry easily.
-The hairy stems that connect the watermelon to the branch dries up.
-When the watermelon is hit hard with your finger, it produces a distinctive full and full sound.
– When the watermelon taken between the palms is squeezed near the ear, a crackling sound from the inside
Unlike melons, ripe watermelons lighten in the later stages of maturity.
-The wax layer on the fruit peel loses its dullness and the fruit becomes shiny.
If the symptoms described above are present, the watermelon fruits are ripe and can be harvested. Since fruit setting in watermelons occurs in different periods, watermelon fruits also ripen in different periods.
Ripe watermelon fruits should be harvested without delay. In watermelon, ripening does not continue after harvest. Therefore, the harvest should be done when the fruits are ripe.
When a good care and fertilization is done in grafted watermelon plants, they are free of diseases and pests.
Harvest can continue until the first frosts of autumn. good care
8-10 tons of product can be obtained from one decare under the conditions.